212, 215-217. Wealthy ladies were often supported by a large number of servants. Plantation life created a society with clear class divisions. These simple houses had a roof of clapboards, and a chimney of logs backed with stone.[12]. Hogs and hominy was seasoned with cabbage or greens.[19]. He raised livestock cattle and hogs for meat, and cows for hides and dairy products. At around 10 AM he returned for a big breakfast of smoked beef or turkey, sugar, and sometimes milk, butter or eggs. [3] Around Charles Town, South Carolina in the late seventeenth century, land was valued at only one penny per acre. The Southern Colonies would be the last to be settled with Georgia coming … Overall the living standards of the typical white family were the highest in the world in the mid-1700s. The colonists had high quantities of pork and dairy products, with the average adult consuming about 1/2 pound of meat per day. Keeping house was more trying as the food was more scarce, the clothing crude, furniture was quite basic and limited, and houses small. Other eating articles were “saltcellars, porringers, sugar-pots, butter-dishes, castors, cruets, bowls and Jugs.”[15] Above the median families had a few fancy clothes, a watch, china plates, fine furniture, some silver items and a few small amenities. With hard work and some money for tools to clear the forests into arable land, a family could provide an adequate diet. 38-39. In the southern colonies, life was very different than life was back in England. The death rate in the colonies was from 15-25 persons per 1000 each year, compared to England that actually had some 40 persons died per 1000 each year. The Southern Colonies began as a small settlement in Jamestown that had a few dirt farms and grew into an economy full of plantations. [14] The furniture was made of oak, pine, cypress, bay, cedar, maple and walnut, while mahogany was to appear in the eighteenth century. [13]  Edwin Tunis, Colonial Living, (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1957), p82. The wood frame structures had weatherboard exteriors with shingle roofs. For those families that prospered, they would build or acquire a three-room home of brick, with a wood floor, two brick fireplaces and some 800 or more square feet of living space. Social life in the southern colonies was based on the strict social class system in place at the time, so activities varied for those colonists who were wealthy versus those who were poor, and for those who were free versus indentured servants or slaves. English American Southerners would not enjoy the generally good health of their New England counterparts. Certainly the hospitality widely offered to visitors in the Southern colonies was largely due to the success of the home management of Southern women. [19] Mathew Page Andrews, Virginia, The Old Dominion, (New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc., 1937), p. 254. Game, fish, smoked beef or pork, vegetables, wheat bread, pie and pudding were some of the usual dinner staples. [4] Richard B. Morris, The LIFE History of the United States Before 1775:Vol 1, (New York: Time-Life Books, 1963), p. 71. While there has always been a reasonable body of knowledge covering the landed gentry and the upper class of the colonial era, there is still comparatively little known of the majority of the middle and lower classes in the South. The Colony of Virginia existed briefly during the 16th century and then continuously from 1607 until the American Revolution. Maryland Maryland was sought to be established as a haven for Roman Catholics persecuted. 1. The British may have downplayed…, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION © 2018. Reaffirms just how remarkable an event this really was in the history of the American Revolutionary War. Close. [16], Cooking of any meal was a major undertaking. 20-21. As for the rest of the presidents who had slaves they di These town houses were “large and handsome, having all the conveniences one sees at home [England]…the most considerable are of Brick, the other Cypress and yellow Pine.”[10], The frontier houses in the backwoods of the Carolinas remained crude for most of the colonial period. The Southern Colonies In contrast to New England and the middle colonies were the predominantly rural southern settlements: Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina, and Georgia. [6] Edwin J. Perkins, The Economy of Colonial America, 2nd ed., (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988), pg. Yet John Lawson wrote around 1700 that most citizens “…lived very nobly.” Brick was made in the area, and the presence of skilled carpenters, joiners, masons and plasterers supported the building of many attractive and substantial residences. Describe the main difference between the economies of the northern and southern colonies in the 1700s. What we do know about this largest segment of the Southern population is that they were a hardy, self-respecting and self-supporting people. According to family accounts, my 5th Great Grandmother was Elizabeth Lewis Bishop,…, Thoroughly enjoyed rereading this piece on Christmas Night. NOAA Hurricane Forecast Maps Are Often Misinterpreted — Here's How to Read Them. But gradually the houses improved and became more substantial. The mansion “Rosewell” on the York River in Virginia had, including the wings, a frontage of two hundred and thirty one feet, with the central building containing fourteen rooms sized at twenty foot square, and nine rooms measured fourteen by seven feet. In South Carolina, in and around Charles Town, the homes were mostly of wood, yet brick houses were in evidence. Wealthy planters were able to offer their children a good education, with boys learning how to run the plantation and girls learning skills like singing and managing a household. The middle colonies had people from different religions, like Quakers, Catholics, Jews, etc. [26] William S. Powell, North Carolina Through Four Centuries, (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1989), p. 120. Describe the role of an overseer and a planter. Their main cash crops were tobacco. Even infant mortality was better in the colonies, where 12 to 15 of 100 babies died each year compared to England where no fewer than 20 per 100 died. Women often married quite young, sometimes at an age of thirteen or fourteen. Points. [27] Julia Cherry Spruill, Women’s Life and Work in the Southern Colonies, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1972), p. 138. Colonial Life in the Southern Colonies Slave Life Slave life varied greatly depending on many factors, such as where they live and who they were owned by. Journal of the American Revolution also produces annual hardcover volumes, a branded book series, and the podcast, Dispatches. A visitor commented that Carolina women “…take care of Cows, Hogs, and other small Cattle, make Butter and Cheese, spin Cotton and Fax, help sow and reap Corn, wind Silk from the Worms, gather Fruit, and look after the House.” Bricknell wrote that he found the wives of poorer farmers “ready to assist their husbands in any Servile Work, as planting when the Season of the Year requires expedition.”[20], Even in the earliest settlements colonial women were uniquely efficient. In addition to being separated from their families, their enslavements were often permanent, they worked long hours in all forms of weather and were subject to violent punishments. [28] Edwin J. Perkins, The Economy of Colonial America, 2nd ed., (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988), pg. [7] Mathew Page Andrews, Virginia, The Old Dominion, (New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc.,1937), p. 254. The contrast between rich and poor was greater in the South than in the other English colonies, because of the labor system necessary for its survival. These women were significantly more independent and self-sufficient, and endured many hardships even in the mid-1700s. This edition of Mr. Zoller's Social Studies Podcasts focuses on England's thirteen original colonies in the new world. [29], In considering the mortality rates of colonists, the colonial doctor seemed to play no significant part in increasing the chances of maintaining life. 1. In which years were the Toleration Acts passed in Maryland? In 1729 in Winyaw Parish the parsonage was described as, “a wooden building but plaster’d within, a story & half high & 25 foot Square.” Around 1767 Reverend James Harrison in St. Mark’s Parish, located 8 miles from Charles Town, was provided a representative house “…just finished, 36 ft. front, with four good rooms, lobby and staircase-a good kitchen, garden, orchard, stables and necessary out houses.” In Charlotte, North Carolina in 1766 regulations required each lot have, “one well framed sawed orhewed Log-House” some 20 feet long, 16 feet wide and 10 feet “in the clear” with brick or stone chimney. Your email address will not be published. While an image of a life of idleness and leisure for the Southern colonial woman may have evolved over time, the impression is not one of fact for most females. [27] Childbirth was often for most female adults who were married, with most Southern mothers having their first children in their late teens. As the mid-eighteenth century arrived, life for the Southern colonists was the best that the British colonial experience could ever have yielded. Horses were used for transportation and for working the fields. They were located south of the Middle Colonies, albeit Virginia and Maryland (in their quality as northernmost colonies of the South) where also considered as the Chesapeake Colonies. Land was readily available, the population density was low, the air and water was not polluted, food was plentiful, disease was low, abject poverty was rare, energy was abundant, and the environment was essentially untouched and beautiful. Sir Francis Bathurst in 1735 tells of a house 20 feet long, by 12 feet wide, divided into two apartments, a bedroom and dining room, and the house covered with clapboards. In Jamestown the investors in the parent London Company were given 100 acres for each share of stock they owned. While working to settle on the boundary line between Virginia and North Carolina, Mrs. Francis Jones entertained the Commissioners who had passed her home remarking “she is a very civil woman and shews nothing of ruggedness, or Immodesty in her carriage, yett she will carry a gunn in the woods and kill a deer, turkeys, &c., shoot down wild cattle, catch and tye hoggs, knock down beeves with an ax and perform the most manfull Exercises as well as most men in those part.”[21]. [8], The large plantation manor homes of the wealthy gentry were extremely impressive. [30] Authur M. Schlesinger, The Birth of the Nation, 6th ed., (New York, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1976),pg. The next year they established Jamestown Colony in what is now the state of Virginia. In 1765 John Graham advertised a house of two stories, with a first floor containing “a handsome balcony in the front, with a dining room, two “good bed-chambers,” one of which had a fireplace, a passage of “eight feet wide, and an easy well finished staircase,” a “kitchen adjoining the house well fitted up,” and a piazza running the full length of the house, at one end of which was a “bedroom lined, plastered and glazed,” and at the other a convenient storeroom. In the New England colonies they discussed issues in town meetings, in the Mid-Atlantic colonies they discussed in market towns, and in the Southern Colonies they discussed issues in counties. By the late 17th century, Virginia's and Maryland's economic and social structure rested on the great planters and the yeoman farmers. Lower classes ate from wooden bowls. The Southern colonies were noted for plantations, or large farms, and for the use of slaves to work on them. [28], Half of population in the 1770s was believed to have been below the age of fifteen. [24] The gentry class faired better in having a greater variety and style of clothing. 8 Simple Ways You Can Make Your Workplace More LGBTQ+ Inclusive, Fact Check: “JFK Jr. Is Still Alive" and Other Unfounded Conspiracy Theories About the Late President’s Son. This was a significant finding, and a real indicator of a high level of economic activity for the eighteenth century in North America. By average man, we’re pretty much saying average person. The scarce number of doctors or any other health services in the colonial South made no difference, primarily because even the best trained doctor of the time had no way to deal with infectious diseases. Life in the Southern Colonies (part 2 of 3) - Journal of the American Revolution | Journal of the American Revolution, The Widow’s Apron: Life, Death, and a Forgotten Skirmish Along the Old Blackstock Road. To produce enough rice or cotton or tobacco to make a profit took … Because of the damp and hot weather, vector borne diseases were common. The wealthy men had clothing based on the English styles and of various color (queen’s drab, sea-grey mouse’ ear, new brown, and London smoke), and of varied fabric (muslin, worsted Florentine cotton denim). They also wore their riding coats, jockey hats, muslin cravats and black bearskin muffs. 2. Daphne works and makes the bread, old Ebba boils the cow’s victuals, raises and fattens the pountry, Moses is imployed from breakfast until 12 o’clock without doors, after that in the house. [11] Julia Cherry Spruill, Women’s Life and Work in the Southern Colonies, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1972), pg. [2] Later, as the colony developed, the colonial government gave anyone who paid his own passage to the New World 50 acres free through the “headright system.” In Maryland, Lord Baltimore granted manorial estates to any who would import 50 persons to his colony, and as a result over 60 manors were established there. Life in the Southern Colonies Quick Quiz. The Southern Colonies were dominated by a desire to make money in the new American marketplace, which led to the development of large plantations and an agriculturally-focused society. Most Southerners did not experience this degree of wealth. Their work found that native-born colonial soldiers were two inches taller than the British soldiers, a clear scientific indicator of the superior diets of the North American colonists.[5]. - the south planted single crops developing plantations instead of cities. [25], In the colonial America of the eighteenth century, the typical family size was large, with some eight children. The wealthy also had household chores performed by servants or slaves. The evidence of details of the lives of these people has not been balanced across the … It was not a time for the idol pursuits of youth, but one for duty and serious responsibility. True . Life in the southern colonies was dictated by a person's standing in society. [29] Authur M. Schlesinger, The Birth of the Nation, 6th ed., (New York, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1976),p.23. Your email address will not be published. We no longer find, as in Connecticut, houses situated along the road at small distances, just large enough to contain a single family, and the household furniture nothing more than is barely necessary; here are spacious habitations, consisting of different buildings, at some distance from each other, surrounded with plantations that extend beyond the reach of the eye…Their furniture here, is constructed out of the most costly kinds of wood, and that most valuable marble, enriched by the elegant devices of the artists hand.”, The settlers in North Carolina in the Albemarle region before 1700 still lived in rude cabins since they were without large sums of capital. Unlike the New England colonies, the Southern colonies had an abundance of fertile soil ideal for growing crops. Whereas Northerners came to start a new life away from religious persecution, families and homesteads weren't part of that picture. During the eighteenth century the most common plantation, whether of brick or wood, was a large square building of two stories high, with a wide hall-often called the “great hall”-with four large rooms on each floor, and four chimneys. But even in the frontier settlements, visitors were a welcome sight. In almost every aspect of their lives, these peoples had achieved a standard of life not equaled even in the mature societies and economies of Western Europe. Some examples of the social and political life here are the plantations, mansions, indentured servants, fewer cities, and fewer schools. Life was very different in the rural southern colonies of Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. All … The lives of these youths were founded on the sense of obedience without question to their elders. The Puritans constituted the major part of population in New England. Therefore, the colonist had more disposable income. The stable or carriage house was usually further away from the primary dwelling. The struggles to survive, as in the early colonial period, were mostly a past concern for the majority of the population. Disease just ran its courses and hopefully one survived. People in Southern Colonies met in county seats. It’s Free, Easy and Loads of fun! Homes outside Jamestown, owned by planters, were constructed of brick foundations and chimneys only, with the remaining made of wood, which was in great abundance. [9] Mary Newton Stanard, Colonial Virginia, Its People and Customs, (Philadelphia: J. As recorded by a historian, Robert Beverley, in travels in Virginia around 1700, “The inhabitants are very courteous to travellers, who need no other recommendation but the being human creatures. [18] Corn was popular, with cornbread being as available on a royal governor’s table as it was in the log cabin of the black slave field hand. 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